Xia Po-Chia Ronald. Social Discipline in the Reformation: Central Europe 1550-1750. New York: Routledge: 1989.

The history of 1550-1750 is the period of confessionalization in which parallel ideologies and groups were crystallized and allied to civic governments.

Chapters 1-3 discuss the formational years of the three confessions. Chapter 4 gives the relationship to the state by four examples. Cities and confessionalization - their bi- and multi-cultures - are the subject of Chapter 5. Chapter 6 addresses Catholic and Protestant cultures (literature, books plays, hymns, legends, music). Home life regulation and social discipline are covered in Chapter 7. Chaper 8 offers popular responses.

From 1555-1580 cities were fluid and more open. From 1580-1618 "polarization" occurred with the new generation of Reformers. The years 1648-1700 confirmed toleration and plurality. Elites took over running religious states. There were Lutheran city elites, rural wealthy peasant elites, and Catholic and Protestant clerical bourgeoisie elites. Catholic Germany had a noble-backed church; entrepreneurs were Calvinists and Mennonites who adopted the putting-out system. The sacralization of the 14th and 15th century (Xia sees the the life of the church as Bossy describes it) was "gotten under control" and desacralized by the clergy - refigured as superstition. Confessionalism undermined the sacral communalism, and replaced it with commercialism and toleration. Psychologically, it all equated to the civilizing process and internal social discipline.