Frederick Taylor. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: W. W. Norton, 1911.

"The best management is a true science, resting upon clearly defined laws, rules and principles, as a foundation….[T]he fundamental principles of scientific management are applicable to all kinds of human activities.…[W]henever these principles are correctly applied, results must follow which are truly astonishing." (7)

As a side note, this opening has all the characteristics of a truly great sales pitch on an infomercial
1 - there's a secret you don't know that could help you a lot
2 - this secret is an exact science and works the same way every time; you need only
master a few simple rules
3 - the results are astonishing!

Taylor insists that his method of rationalizing work is not to wring every last drop of sweat out of a laborer for the same low wages. Rather, he argues that the principle object of a company should be maximum profit for the employer and employee alike. Work should be easy, efficient, enjoyable, and workers should be well paid for bringing higher profits to their company. It's not overwork but underpayment that should be fixed, says he. He genuinely believed himself to be a friend to the workers, although as we read on, respect seems lacking. Efficiency is the key to his character: it's pretty clear from reading his work that he's got a gut-level aversion to the inefficiency represented by "soldiering" and to the way that a group sinks to the level of the lowest and laziest employee.

His three chief innovations in managing workers are as follows: 1) separate planning from work. 2) Train workers how to move, sit, stand, haul, rest and do their tasks with maximum efficiency. Do not believe or assume that they can discover the principles of task- and motion-efficiency by themselves; they cannot. 3) Pay incentives for meeting and exceeding work goals.

His work in Bethlehem Steel includes the famous "Schmidt, are you a high-priced man?" scene, in which poor Schmidt is transformed from a $1.15 to a $1.85 man by hauling 47 tons of pig iron daily, instead of his former 12 ½ tons. Schmidt's every move is determined, and Schmidt is never informed of the new rate of hauling (doubtless he knew it was more!) but neither her nor his fellows felt inclined to strike, which was Taylor's main concern after discovering or determining that a laborer could "really" carry 47 tons. Taylor gives an example of the misapplication of the new scientific management, and suggests that unless the system is applied very carefully indeed, trouble will result. As further examples he offers Frank Gilbreth's work on brick loading and his work on machine cutting tools.